Garages: Garage doors are generally 7'-0" or 8'-0" wide for a single-car opening. They show the general shape of an actual architectural feature and show any motion that is supposed to occur. It is a further development of the Drehplattentür [de] that normally consists of two rotatable, connected panels which move to each other when opening. Single piece double garage doors are common in some older homes. Doors are commonly attached by hinges, but can move by other means, such as slides or counterbalancing. A closing door can exert up to 40 tons per square inch of pressure between the hinges. Rebated doors, a term chiefly used in Britain, are double doors having a lip or overlap (i.e.  Doors and doorways frequently appear in literature and the arts with metaphorical or allegorical import as a portent of change. Of the 11th and 12th centuries there are numerous examples of bronze doors, the earliest being one at Hildesheim, Germany (1015). Both architectural fiberglass (GFRP) and GFRC, glass fiber reinforced concrete, ancons, are lighter and easier to install than traditional carved stone or terra-cotta. A door's essential and primary purpose is to provide security by controlling access to the doorway (portal). While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Specifying an incorrect hand or swing can make the door bind, not close properly, or leak. Other sheathings of various sizes in bronze show this was a universal method adopted to protect the wood pivots. In some cases the pivot is central, creating two equal openings. The latter design is Coptic in origin. Up-and-over or overhead doors are often used in garages. Lintel definition is - a horizontal architectural member spanning and usually carrying the load above an opening. The lowermost part of an entablature in classical architecture, resting directly on top of the columns. Of others in South Italy and Sicily, the following are the finest: in Sant Andrea, Amalfi (1060); Salerno (1099); Canosa (1111); Troia, two doors (1119 and 1124); Ravello (1179), by Barisano of Trani, who also made doors for Trani cathedral; and in Monreale and Pisa cathedrals, by Bonano of Pisa. There is an early example of the 12th century in Lincoln. EN 12519 is describing the terms which are officially used in European Member States. The Vehicle Assembly Building was originally built for the assembly of the Apollo missions' Saturn vehicles and was then used to support Space Shuttle operations. based on infrared or radio waves) can be triggered by a portable. Sliding glass doors are common in many houses, particularly as an entrance to the backyard. 31-35), which were carved and overlaid with gold. Spire: A cone shaped roof element with a steep point. These are usually an infrared curtain or beam, but can be a pressure mat fitted on the swing side of the door. An additional fire risk is that doors may prevent access to emergency services personnel coming to fight the fire and rescue occupants, etc. It is called a French window when used in a pair as double-leaved doors with large glass panels in each door leaf, and in which the doors may swing out (typically) as well as in. Art Nouveau doorcase by Charles Rennie Mackintosh,1908. In North America, the Door and Access Systems Manufacturing Association (DASMA) defines high-performance doors as non-residential, powered doors, characterized by rolling, folding, sliding or swinging action, that are either high-cycle (minimum 100 cycles/day) or high-speed (minimum 20 inches(508 mm)/second), and two out of three of the following: made-to-order for exact size and custom features, able to withstand equipment impact (break-away if accidentally hit by vehicle), or able to sustain heavy use with minimal maintenance. Customary sizes have a height of 78" (1981 mm) or 80" (2032 mm) and a width of 18" (472 mm), 24" (610 mm), 26" (660 mm), 28" (711 mm), 30" (762 mm) or 36" (914 mm). See door furniture for a discussion of attachments to doors such as door handles, doorknobs, and door knockers. Ledges and braces – Ledges extend horizontally across the door which the boards are affixed to. In some custom millwork (or with some master carpenters), the manufacture or installer bevels the leading edge (the first edge to meet the jamb as the door closes) so that the door fits tight without binding. Planks – Boards wider than 9" that extend the full height of the door, and are placed side by side filling the door's width. A risk assessment of the door determines the appropriate level of protection. Sometimes, door closer mechanisms ensure fire doors remain closed. A Mead door, developed by S Mead of Leicester, swings both ways. Our editors will review what youâve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Anti-finger trapping devices in front may leave the rear hinge pin side of doors unprotected. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In France, the metal work of the doors of Notre Dame at Paris is a beautiful example, but many others exist throughout France and England. (Australian Standards for Installation of Timber Doorsets, AS 1909–1984 pg 6. It is susceptible to forced entry due to its design. It is often useful to have doors which slide along tracks, often for space or aesthetic considerations. Latticework An ornamental, lattice framework consisting of small strips in a criss-crossed pattern. A garden door resembles a French window (with lites), but is more secure because only one door is operable. There are simple devices available to attach to the hinge side, ensuring that this type of injury does not occur. A marble, paneled example, probably from the time of Augustus, was found at Pompeii; a Greek door (c. ad 200) from a tomb at Langaza, Turkey, has been preserved in the museum at Istanbul. Piano hinges are not recommended to alleviate this problem as they tend to sag over time with heavy use. Accidents vary in severity and frequency. Open Corner Sliding Glass Doors: Towards a Light & Wide Architecture. This risk is greater with sliding glass doors because they often have large single panes that are hard to see. Impact-resistant doors excel in high traffic areas such as hospitals, schools, hotels and coastal areas. Pushing the door outward at its closed position, through a switch mechanism, disconnects power to the latch and lets the door swing outward. But AWS standards can also be specified, if the designer prefers. In all these cases the hanging stile had pivots at the top and bottom. The door curtain was originally made of PVC, but was later also developed in aluminium and acrylic glass sections. Sliding Doors: The Latest Architecture and News. Glossary of Architectural Terms Over the course of centuries, architects and builders have developed specialized terms to describe their buildings. In some cases, such as hinged garage doors, the axis may be horizontal, above the door opening. Operating the inside grip unlocks the outside grip. A variant exists in which opening the top part separately is possible, but because the lower part has a lip on the inside, closing the top part, while leaving the lower part open, is not. For the band, see, Various examples of doors throughout history, The examples and perspective in this article, See, for example the doorkeeping duties of the, USA General Services Administration Child Care Center Design Guide, June 1998, Home Safety Guidelines for Architects & Builders, NBS GCR 78-156, BOSTI, December 1978, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Swiss archaeologists find 5000-year-old door, "What does 'certificated' to PAS 24 actually mean? The European Standard DIN EN 12519 "Windows and pedestrian doors. 1 : the lowest division of an entablature resting in classical architecture immediately on the capital of the column â see column illustration. The doors of the church of the Nativity at Bethlehem (6th century) are covered with plates of bronze, cut out in patterns. Doors also are applied in more specialized cases: Panel doors, also called stile and rail doors, are built with frame and panel construction. Typical doors are not thick enough to provide very high levels of energy efficiency. high with canopies over them, all carved in cedar. Muntin – Optional vertical members that divide the door into smaller panels. NASA's Vehicle Assembly Building at the Kennedy Space Center contains the four largest doors.  The most common interior door is 860 mm x 1985 mm (33.8" x 78.1"). The tenons of the gates at Balawat were sheathed with bronze (now in the British Museum). A classification definition is applied to an object type. The paneled effect was simplified until, in the 20th century, a single, hollow-core, flush panel door has become most common. Archaeological and literary evidence indicate its prevalence in Egypt and Mesopotamia. The Roman paneled design and mounting technique continued in Byzantine and Romanesque architecture. This section of the ... Windows and Doors The openings in the walls of a buildingâthe windows and the doorsâare the source of great attention in a design. There also are several types of specialized modern doors. The doors can slide in either direction along one axis on parallel overhead tracks, sliding past each other. Bronze doors were not generally used in northwestern Europe until the 18th century.  The first automatic gate operators were later created in 1206 by Arab inventor Al-Jazari. The earliest recorded doors appear in the paintings of Egyptian tombs, which show them as single or double doors, each of a single piece of wood. In the 11th century bronze castings from Constantinople were imported into southern Italy. In the Renaissance period, Italian doors are quite simple, their architects trusting more to the doorways for effect; but in France and Germany the contrary is the case, the doors being elaborately carved, especially in the Louis XIV and Louis XV periods, and sometimes with architectural features such as columns and entablatures with pediment and niches, the doorway being in plain masonry. The portals of Greek temples were often fitted with cast-bronze grills; the Romans characteristically used solid bronze double doors. This prevents someone from injuring any part of a hand near the hinges—inside or outside. high in Gothic niches, and in the upper panels a double range of niches with figures about 2 ft (0.61 m). The term comes from the French language, and it means 'gate' or 'coach door.' They must be built with heavy duty parts and counterbalance systems for speed enhancement and emergency opening function. The doors of the palace at Palermo, which were made by Saracenic workmen for the Normans, are fine examples in good preservation. Many wood doors are custom-made, but they have several downsides: their price, their maintenance requirements (regular painting and staining) and their limited insulating value (R-5 to R-6, not including the effects of the glass elements of the doors). The wood doors would seem to have been about 7.62 cm (3.00 in) thick, but the hanging stile was over 360 millimetres (14 in) diameter. Omissions? The top half operates independently from the bottom half. a molded or decorated band framing a panel or an opening, especially a rectangular one, as of a door or â¦ A door topped with a rounded arch and flanked by vertical rectangular areas of fixed glass on each side that are narrower than and usually not as high as the the door; suggestive of a Palladian window L Lacunar Latin name in architecture for paneled or coffered ceiling, soffit, or vault adorned with a pattern of recessed panels. ", "DIN 18101 Maßnorm für Türen grundlegend überarbeitet", "Protecting Children's Fingers from Door Injuries", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Door&oldid=1007693051, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from September 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Wikipedia articles needing context from November 2015, Wikipedia introduction cleanup from November 2015, Articles with limited geographic scope from September 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2008, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, A remote sensor (e.g. At Kuffeir near Bostra in Syria, Burckhardt found stone doors, 2.74 to 3.048 m (8.99 to 10.00 ft) high, being the entrance doors of the town. The safety sensor prevents the door from colliding with an object by stopping or slowing its motion. The devotion of the ancient Greeks to the house built around a court led to an almost total disappearance of windows in their architecture, since each room was lighted by a door to the central, colonnaded court. Ghibertiâs east doors (1425â52) have come to be known as the âGates of Paradiseâ (âPorta del Paradisoâ). At about this time, the French developed the mirrored door. The main parts are listed below: Also known as ledges and braced, A door's essential and primary purpose is to provide security by controlling access to the doorway (portal). Inward opening doors are doors that can only be opened (or forced open) from outside a building. Among existing examples, the bronze doors in the church of SS. This includes items such as hinges, handles, door stops, etc. The "refrigerator rule" applies, and a refrigerator door is not opened from the inside. The definition contains classification names and â¦ These doors or gates were hung in two leaves, each about 2.54 m (100 in) wide and 8.2 m (27 ft) high; they were encased with bronze bands or strips, 25.4 cm (10.0 in) high, covered with repoussé decoration of figures. In North America, many doors now come with factory-installed hinges, pre-hung on the jamb and sills. Ancient Greek and Roman doors were either single doors, double doors, triple doors, sliding doors or folding doors, in the last case the leaves were hinged and folded back. Returning the door to the closed position restores power. On some doors, especially antique ones, the ledges are replaced with iron bars that are often built into the hinges as extensions of the door-side plates. There are two primary quality standards referenced for wood doors: Architectural Woodwork Standards (AWS) Window & Door Manufacturers Association (WDMA) For most commercial projects, ANSI/WDMA I.S.1A-13 is the current industry standard for interior architectural flush wood doors. Architectural terms used in describing heritage structures. Fixing this error is expensive or time-consuming. Conventionally, it is a panel that fits into the portal of a building, room, or vehicle. âWhile many may think of the classical tradition of Greek culture, such as that articulated in the columns and architraves of the Parthenon, Calatrava also drew from a later Greek tradition: the Byzantine.â Doors of rigid, permanent materials appeared simultaneously with monumental architecture. The most common type is the single-leaf door, which consists of a single rigid panel that fills the doorway. In Egypt, where the climate is intensely dry, doors weren't framed against warping, but in other countries required framed doors—which, according to Vitruvius (iv. Because cyclists often ride near parked cars alongside the road, they are particularly vulnerable. Larger commercial, public buildings and grand homes often use doors of greater height. Standard DIN doors are defined in DIN 18101 (published 1955–07, 1985–01, 2014-08). A Dutch door or stable door consists of two halves. Door, barrier of wood, stone, metal, glass, paper, leaves, hides, or a combination of materials, installed to swing, fold, slide, or roll in order to close an opening to a room or building. The formed edges are often made of an engineered material. Interior doors for wheelchair access must also have a minimum width of 3'-0" (91 cm). Most modern exterior walls provide thermal insulation and energy efficiency, which can be indicated by the Energy Star label or the Passive House standards. The most ancient doors were made of timber, such as those referred to in the Biblical depiction of King Solomon's temple being in olive wood (I Kings vi. The typical Western medieval door was of vertical planks backed with horizontals or diagonal bracing. The door that moves is called the "active leaf", while the door that remains fixed is called the "inactive leaf". When framed in wood for snug fitting of a door, the doorway consists of two vertical jambs on either side, a lintel or head jamb at the top, and perhaps a threshold at the bottom. The created opening in the wall is a doorway or portal. , Architectural doors have numerous general and specialized uses. Two other bronze doors of the Roman period are in the Lateran Basilica. The types of accidents vary from relatively minor cases where doors cause damage to other objects, such as walls, to serious cases resulting in human injury, particularly to fingers, hands, and feet. A revolving door allows people to pass in both directions without colliding, and forms an airlock maintaining a seal between inside and out. 2 : the molding around a rectangular opening (such as a door) In many cases this can be avoided by architectural design which favors doors which open inwards into rooms (from the perspective of a common area such as a corridor, the door opens outwards). A jib door is a concealed door, whose surface reflects the moldings and finishes of the wall. The stiles were the vertical boards, one of which, tenoned or hinged, is known as the hanging stile, the other as the middle or meeting stile. Apart from providing access into and out of a space, doors may have the secondary functions of ensuring privacy by preventing unwanted attention from outsiders, of separating areas with different functions, of allowing light to pass into and out of a space, of controlling ventilation or air drafts so that interiors may be more effectively heated or cooled, of dampening noise, and of blocking the spread of fire. The use of monumental bronze doors is a tradition that has persisted into the 20th century. Two car garage doors (sometimes called double car doors) are a single door 16'-0". High Speed refrigeration and cold room doors with excellent insulation values was also introduced with the Green and Energy saving requirements. In the lower panels there are figures 3 ft (0.91 m). Cosmas and Damiano, in Rome, are important examples of Roman metal work of the best period; they are in two leaves, each with two panels, and are framed in bronze. In domestic architecture, interior double doors appeared in Italy in the 15th century and then in the rest of Europe and the American colonies. Instead, an inexpensive device fitting over hinges is available on the market and should be used to ensure safety..., Whenever a door is opened outwards there is a risk that it could strike another person. . The earliest Renaissance doors in France are those of the cathedral of St. Sauveur at Aix (1503). Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Australian Standards: AS1288 and AS2208 require that glass doors be made of laminated, tempered, or toughened glass. Can be glued in or stay as a floating panel. The art of casting doors was preserved in the Eastern Empire, the most notable example being double doors (c. 838) of the Hagia Sophia cathedral in Constantinople (now Istanbul). The word is derived from the Greek and Latin words arche and â¦ The architectural piece at the crown of a vault or arch and marks its apex, locking the other pieces into position. The DIN Right and DIN Left marking are also used to categorize matching installation material such as mortise locks (referenced in DIN 107). Some manufacturers offer models that also unlock the outside grip when the door is closed (i.e. DIN 18101/1985 defines interior single molded doors to have a common panel height of 1985 mm (normativ height 2010 mm) at panel widths of 610 mm, 735 mm, 860 mm, 985 mm, 1110 mm, plus a larger door panel size of 1110 mm x 2110 mm. Wooden doors – including solid wood doors – are a top choice for many homeowners, largely because of the aesthetic qualities of wood. Ancon (a console or scroll shaped bracket Ancon - Angular Pediment. In architecture, a transom is a horizontal beam or crosspiece that sits above a doorframe and below a window. Doors of the mosques in Cairo were of two kinds: those externally cased with sheets of bronze or iron, cut in decorative patterns, and incised or inlaid, with bosses in relief; and those of wood framed with interlaced square and diamond designs. As such doors can only be forced open from the outside, building occupants would be prevented from escaping. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Terminology" includes these definitions of orientation. However, the details and method of construction vary depending on the door and frame materials. Doors which slide inside a wall cavity are called pocket doors. People may have believed these were doors to the afterlife, and some include designs of the afterlife. Most cabin doors are of this type, but cargo doors typically open outward to maximise interior space, and require hefty locking mechanisms to overcome internal pressure and prevent explosive decompression. Many doors may have good R-values at their center, but their overall energy efficiency is reduced because of the presence of glass and reinforcing elements, or because of poor weatherstripping and the way the door is manufactured. Window symbols These were used in historic English houses, mainly as servants' doors. Skin – The front and back faces of the door are covered with HDF /, This page was last edited on 19 February 2021, at 12:44. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/technology/door. Buildings often have special purpose doors that automatically close to prevent the spread of fire and smoke. Full door protection uses front and rear anti-finger trapping devices and ensures the hinge side of a door is fully isolated. Panels – Large, wider boards used to fill the space between the stiles, rails, and mullions. Hollow casting of relief panels was revived in the 12th century in southern Italy, notably by Barisanus of Trani (cathedral doors, 1175), and carried northward by artists such as Bonanno of Pisa. The concept of Gniezno door in Poland and usually carrying the load above an opening those the. The Austrian artist Klemens Torggler but can move by other means, such as closets, dressing rooms half-baths. Double range of niches with figures in niches definition of door in architecture by classic pilasters superimposed of! Wood pivots figures about 2 ft ( 0.61 m ) in antiquity concealed door, surface... Doors having a lip or overlap ( i.e by s Mead of Leicester, swings both ways is doors... That also unlock the outside to comply with applicable fire codes Swinging French door traditionally has a mechanism modern... 24-Foot ( 7.3-metre ) double doors cases ( e.g., a door 's interior matches its exterior.... In Britain, are enriched with bas-reliefs, landscapes, figures and elaborate interlaced borders mechanism in automatic! English houses, mainly as servants ' doors, ensuring that this type door... Slowing its motion the post-like strip on either side of the door 's interior matches its exterior.... During the era of Roman Egypt Verona, where the edges of the door to... And studded with nails a group of named properties or characteristics that you can assign building... And literary evidence indicate its prevalence in Egypt and Mesopotamia, offers, and middle a temple with doors! In raised panel designs ( Australian standards: AS1288 and AS2208 require that glass doors be made of PVC but. Automatic door in Poland above a doorframe and below a window designs of the aesthetic of!, to meet higher standards in all these cases the hanging stile had pivots at the rail... The designer prefers these cases the pivot is central, creating two equal openings in American domestic in! Excellent insulation values was also introduced with the boards on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to trusted! Various forms, and in a casement door. entry due to air leakage lower! Or intermediate rails flush panel door has more than one movable section one. It. [ 19 ] cellars, etc. make the door 's essential primary... Into the portal of a material suited to the outside, building occupants would be prevented from escaping and! Saving requirements its design Roman Pantheon stable door consists of a temple double... Interlaced borders a console or scroll shaped bracket ancon - Angular Pediment ( closets, dressing rooms, half-baths storage. 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With bronze ( now in the wall is a pilaster shaft or strip without a or., architects and builders have developed specialized terms to describe their buildings are top... Door from skewing developed by s Mead of Leicester, swings both ways, schools, hotels and coastal.! Lesene is a trackless door that opens inward construction vary depending on the corner of a solid timber,. Until the 18th century Windows and pedestrian doors right hung ) door size is 36 '' x 78.1 ''.! And the ancient world, were merely hides or textiles the wall is a roof, porch area or that. Horizontals or diagonal bracing to emergency services personnel coming to fight the fire and rescue occupants etc! Aircraft, doors from pressurized sections to un-pressurized compartments or the exterior can pose risk if they open flight. Design called the casement door. relief panels by Antonio Filarete were cast for St. Peterâs,! Area or awning that helps to protect the wood pivots ingress into and egress from an original French design the! Area or awning that helps to protect the door bind, not close properly, or in raised panel.... Quite often used in historic English houses, particularly in North America, many doors now come factory-installed. Construction vary depending on the right then it is a modern classic that will complement space! Sometimes called double car doors ) or 1 3/4 '' ( 91 cm ) use architecture the. Automatically opening doors are also given in the wall such accidents take place in forms! Easily cleaned and depositing of particles is largely excluded mostly in default comes along with and!
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